Global population is forecast to reach around 9 billion by 2050. To feed the world, global agricultural output must increase by around 60% from present levels. This must be achieved against a background of increasing competition for natural resources such as water, feed ingredients and farming sites.
Maintaining environmental integrity while massively increasing food production will require farming systems to reduce their unit production environmental footprint. Many farming practices that are regarded as sustainable today will not be acceptable when scaled up. Sustainable intensification of aquaculture means doing more with less. The Sustainable Farming Systems Programme aims to help aquaculture become a more efficient user of natural resources, both in terms of farm productivity and environmental efficiency.
The programme develops better management practices for major aquaculture farming systems, and promotes aquaculture as a secondary or additional use of water resources. The programme focusses on practical interventions that can be directly achieved by small-scale farmers in a developing country context.
Key activities of the programme are:
Development of better management practices for key aquaculture production systems.
Organising small-scale farmers into associations to facilitate cluster-based approaches to extension.
Development of culture-based fisheries as a secondary use of water bodies.
Development of strategic policy frameworks to guide governments and development agencies in promoting sustainable intensification of aquaculture.
This collection of publications originates from the International Consortium Program on Shrimp Farming and the Environment, which was implemented by the World Bank, the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA), the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The consortium supported 35 complementary case studies prepared by more than 100 researchers in more than 20 shrimp farming countries.
The sixteen papers in this volume were largely based on the data from a survey of more than 5,000 shrimp and close to 6,000 carp farms in sixteen countries and territories in the Asia-Pacific region. They provide an economic and technical efficiency of production analysis for Asian shrimp and carp farming systems. This survey was conducted under the ADB/NACA regional study and workshop on aquaculture sustainability and the environment (RETA 5534).
Freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nobilii for rural nutrition. Snapshots of a socially responsible farm in Sri Lanka. Introduction of rainbow trout in Nepal. Tilapia seed production in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Seaweed mariculture - scope and potential in India. Growth enhancement of carp and prawn through dietary suppliementation with salt. Fertilisation and water quality management in small ponds. The "Gher Revolution". Exercising responsibilities to tackle aquatic animal disease. Immunostimulants in aquaculture.
Ornamental fish farming in India. Tilapia for Indian aquaculture? Peri-urban food production in southeast Asia. Socio-economic consequences of shrimp farming in Andhra Pradesh. Breeding techniques for golden arowana Scleropages formosus. Captive breeding of peacock eel Macrognathus aculeatus. Substrate-based aquaculture systems. Extension in shrimp health management - experiences from India. Treatment of disease in freshwater shrimps and crabs in China. Larval rearing techniques for humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis.
Peri-urban aquaculture in Kolkata. Diffusion and adoption of shrimp farming technologies. Aquaculture education in India. Information system on fish germplasm resources in China. Freshwater crustacean aquaculture in China. The role of macronutrients. Innovations by Bengal farmers. Scientific guidelines for freshwater prawn farmers in India. Status of mariculture in Indonesia. Use of probiotics in larval rearing. Problems in shrimp culture during the wet season.
Prawn farm energy audits. Freshwater fish farming and poverty alleviation in Bangladesh. Artificial propagation for conservation of endangered species. Sewerage-fed aquaculture systems of Kolkata. Rice-fish farming in India. The use of lime, gypsum, alum and potassium permanganate in water quality management. Fish gene technology research in China. Low-salinity shrimp farms. Seed production of Clarius batrachus. Supplying good-quality seed for sustainable aquaculture and more.
Chemical residues. Live reef fish trade in Hong Kong. Barramundi farming in Australia. Freshwater pearl and prawn production in China. Status of common carp varieties under culture in China. Induced spawning of Pangasius sutchi. Cambodian farmers innovate cost-effective variations on Chinese hatcheries. Genes and fish. Improving rural livelihoods in Cambodia, Vietnam, Nepal and the Philippines through the STREAM Initiative. Marine finfish news, book reviews and more.
This volume, the third major publication arising from the Conference on Aquaculture in the Third Millennium, contains the information essential to conduct well-informed discussion of sustainable aquaculture development - both at the Conference, as well as after. The information provide basic reference points on the progress, direction and magnitude of aquaculture changes, and the factors associated with these changes, within global, regional, sectoral, thematic and technical perspectives.
The Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific is an intergovernmental organisation that promotes rural development through sustainable aquaculture and aquatic resources management. NACA seeks to improve the livelihoods of rural people, reduce poverty and increase food security. The ultimate beneficiaries of NACA are farmers and rural communities. NACA implements development assistance projects in partnership with research centres, governments, development agencies, farmer associations and other organisations.
Culture-based fisheries (CBF) are practices to enhance fish stocks in waters that don't have enough natural recruitment to sustain a fishery. CBF practices are usually applied in small water bodies such as village dams and irrigation reservoirs. Fish growth is driven by the natural productivity of the waters. Usually there is no feeding and the fish are left to forage on natural food supplies. Ownership and management of the stock distinguish CBF as form of extensive aquaculture.