This case study is based on a farm survey of 41 farms out of the total 340 farms in the Rushan County. The results presented in this paper highlight two main problems. The first issue revolves around labor cost statistics. The value of labor cost during the culture period forms a larger than proportionate ratio of total variable cost. The second problem lies in the high fixed cost incurred by rehabilitated farms.

This case study is based on review of existing publications/reports and stakeholder consultations. It is divided into three main sections, namely: 1) Background review on shrimp aquaculture in Bangladesh. 2) Results from a case study of farm management practices, hatcheries and wild shrimp fry collection and 3) Results from a case study on the social aspects of shrimp aquaculture, based on detailed local level studies in the Khulna region.

In Australia, strict Commonwealth and state environmental regulations have constrained development of shrimp farming. A high level of resources, relative to the size and value of the industry, has been devoted to collaborative research on the environmental management of shrimp farming in Australia. The research findings are being used to provide a scientific basis for discharge license requirements and are incorporated into an advanced geographic information and decision support system in order to improve site selection and aquaculture planning.

This document presents the report of the Expert Workshop on Management Strategies for Major Diseases in Shrimp Aquaculture. The report includes summaries of fifteen national review papers on the history and current national status of major shrimp diseases, including their socioeconomic impacts and an evaluation of the successes and failures of state and private sector interventions to solve major disease problems and to develop more sustainable shrimp culture industries, and four thematic reviews.

This review documents the status of shrimp aquaculture in relation to mangrove forest ecosystems. The environmental, social and economic impacts of shrimp farming are discussed, with examples covering both the negative and positive aspects of the sector. The review considers interventions and other activities to improve the sustainability of shrimp farming in the context of coastal zone management and the protection of mangrove ecosystems. The effectiveness of these interventions is considered in the light of experience based on case studies.

This paper reviews feeds and feed management practice in shrimp aquaculture and assesses the trends and environmental implications of feed use. Particular attention is given to the use of fish meal in shrimp diets and water pollution caused by feeds. The review identifies practices at farm, manufacturing and ecosystem levels that can reduce environmental impacts associated with the use of shrimp feeds. Trends in the use of alternative ingredients to replace fish meal are also considered.

The rapid expansion of marine shrimp aquaculture in many tropical developing countries has proceeded without effective environmental regulation. Most countries with shrimp farming do not have an established regulatory apparatus to monitor and enforce environmental and socioeconomic standards. Therefore, voluntary codes of conduct are a possibility for improving overall management and possibly profitability of the marine shrimp aquaculture industry until effective governmental regulation is implemented. This paper reviews the status of existing codes of conduct for shrimp farming.

Various substances in shrimp farm ponds can contaminate waters, including nutrients, metabolic wastes, veterinary chemicals, and suspended soil particles from erosion. This report discusses ways to monitor these aspects of water quality, which is important from two standpoints for shrimp farmers. Incoming water used top supply shrimp ponds must be healthful and free of toxins to protect the growing shrimp, and effluent must be clean enough to avoid harming aquatic ecosystems and water quality standards downstream.

Shrimp aquaculture has been accused of threatening mangrove forests worldwide. Mangrove and shrimp ponds are known to have mutually supportive functions. Mangrove wetlands can treat effluents from shrimp ponds effectively by removing suspended solids and nutrients. This activity can be expected, in turn, to enhance mangrove productivity. This report describes an integrated mangrove wetland–shrimp farm operating in Colombia since 1996. At this site, shrimp farm effluent is recirculated through an 120 ha mangrove area.

This report discusses the recent history of shrimp aquaculture along the Caribbean coast of Colombia, with a focus on effective management practices that have been implemented since the mid-1990s. While the primary reason for using different practices has been preventing outbreaks of shrimp diseases, many such practices provide environmental benefits as well. Examples include reducing the use of water and ensuring that effluent entering natural water bodies is at least as clean as the intake water.