Recognising that challenges for better management of shrimp aquaculture around the world are complex, and that improved practices often result from identifying and analysing lessons learned and exchanging such information, a Consortium Program entitled "Shrimp Farming and the Environment" has been developed. The partners are the World Bank, the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA), the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

The consortium supported 35 complementary case studies prepared by more than 100 researchers in more than 20 shrimp farming countries. These cases have been developed through consultation with numerous stakeholders throughout Asia, Africa and the Americas. Cases range from specific interventions within single operations to thematic reviews of key issues in shrimp aquaculture. The cases have been presented and discussed at more than 150 meetings and workshops worldwide. The goal of the cases is to document and analyse experience around the world in order to better understand what works, what doesn't and why.

The Consortium Program is based on the recommendations of the FAO Bangkok Technical Consultation on Policies for Sustainable Shrimp Culture , the World Bank review on Shrimp Farming and the Environment, and an April 1999 meeting on shrimp management practices hosted by NACA and WWF in Bangkok, Thailand.

There are six objectives to the Consortium Program:

1. Generate a better understanding of key issues involved in sustainable shrimp aquaculture.

2. Encourage a debate and discussion around these issues that leads to consensus among stakeholders regarding key issues.

3. Identify better management strategies for sustainable shrimp Aquaculture.

4. Evaluate the cost for adoption of such strategies as well as other potential barriers to their adoption.

5. Create a framework to review and evaluate successes and failures in shrimp aquaculture which can inform policy debate on management strategies for sustainable shrimp aquaculture.

6. Identify future development activities and assistance required for the implementation of improved management strategies that would support the development of a more sustainable shrimp aquaculture industry.

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Related

Technical publications

NACA publishes technical papers and manuals for a wide variety of farming systems and related environmental and social issues. Many of these provide guidance on better management practices with a view to improving crop outcomes and on-farm resource utilisation efficiency. By using inputs such as feed and power more efficiently, farmers can simultaneously improve their profitability and environmental performance.

In this collection

Thematic review on management strategies for major diseases in shrimp aquaculture

This document presents the report of the Expert Workshop on Management Strategies for Major Diseases in Shrimp Aquaculture. The report includes summaries of fifteen national review papers on the history and current national status of major shrimp diseases, including their socioeconomic impacts and an evaluation of the successes and failures of state and private sector interventions to solve major disease problems and to develop more sustainable shrimp culture industries, and four thematic reviews.

Thematic review on coastal wetland habitats and shrimp aquaculture

This review documents the status of shrimp aquaculture in relation to mangrove forest ecosystems. The environmental, social and economic impacts of shrimp farming are discussed, with examples covering both the negative and positive aspects of the sector. The review considers interventions and other activities to improve the sustainability of shrimp farming in the context of coastal zone management and the protection of mangrove ecosystems. The effectiveness of these interventions is considered in the light of experience based on case studies.

Thematic review of feeds and feed management practices in shrimp aquaculture

This paper reviews feeds and feed management practice in shrimp aquaculture and assesses the trends and environmental implications of feed use. Particular attention is given to the use of fish meal in shrimp diets and water pollution caused by feeds. The review identifies practices at farm, manufacturing and ecosystem levels that can reduce environmental impacts associated with the use of shrimp feeds. Trends in the use of alternative ingredients to replace fish meal are also considered.

The integration of mangrove and shrimp farming: A case study on the Caribbean coast of Colombia

Shrimp aquaculture has been accused of threatening mangrove forests worldwide. Mangrove and shrimp ponds are known to have mutually supportive functions. Mangrove wetlands can treat effluents from shrimp ponds effectively by removing suspended solids and nutrients. This activity can be expected, in turn, to enhance mangrove productivity. This report describes an integrated mangrove wetland–shrimp farm operating in Colombia since 1996. At this site, shrimp farm effluent is recirculated through an 120 ha mangrove area.

The adoption of good management practices by the shrimp industry on the Caribbean coast of Colombia

This report discusses the recent history of shrimp aquaculture along the Caribbean coast of Colombia, with a focus on effective management practices that have been implemented since the mid-1990s. While the primary reason for using different practices has been preventing outbreaks of shrimp diseases, many such practices provide environmental benefits as well. Examples include reducing the use of water and ensuring that effluent entering natural water bodies is at least as clean as the intake water.

Key management challenges for the development and growth of a shrimp farm in northeast Brazil: A case study of Camanor Produtos Marinhos Ltda.

This case study discusses the main lessons for management practices learned at the shrimp farm Camanor, in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Since it was founded in 1982, the farm has yielded data that allow the lessons and insights to be drawn. This case documents the most important lessons learned by Camanor during the past 18 years. The most important challenges before the shrimp aquaculture industry involve developing better practices and implementing industry wide standards that are more sustainable.

Shrimp farming in Brazil: An industry overview

The purpose of this study is to assess the development of the shrimp farming industry in Brazil, identifying past obstacles and key incentives for its expansion. The shrimp industry has taken longer to develop in Brazil than in other countries. Despite favorable conditions, it is only recently that successful efforts are consolidating. This report analyzes the main factors that have inhibited the development of the industry and describes the sector's current characteristics.

Chemical and biological amendments used in shrimp farming (abstract)

This article compares the use of chemical and biological amendments in shrimp farming in Asia and the Americas. The information comes mainly from the author’s experience in Thailand and Ecuador, as well as from the literature. The amendments are discussed according to three major categories: (1) water and soil quality management products, (2) biocides, and (3) feed additives. Certain agents, while necessary to successful shrimp farming, should be used only when needed and in a safe and responsible manner. 

Shrimp Farming and the Environment: Can Shrimp Farming be Undertaken Sustainably?

This report is intended primarily as a discussion paper, to serve as the basis for informed dialogue and policy development to encourage more detailed guidelines following further study and consultation. It seeks, in particular, to answer three commonly posed questions: Is sustainable shrimp farming possible? Can poor coastal communities benefit from it? And, if so, what role can agencies like the World Bank play to ensure that basic minimal requirements to achieve this are met?

Coastal shrimp aquaculture: Searching for better management practices (abstract)

This case study was carried out in the North and North Central of Vietnam. The study was based on discussions and structured interviews with farmers, extension officers and other stakeholders. The objectives of the study were to describe the current coastal aquaculture practises, the impact on the livelihood of the coastal inhabitants and on the environment, to discuss the current situation in relation to the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and identify issues where BMPs should be introduced.