Recognising that challenges for better management of shrimp aquaculture around the world are complex, and that improved practices often result from identifying and analysing lessons learned and exchanging such information, a Consortium Program entitled "Shrimp Farming and the Environment" has been developed. The partners are the World Bank, the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA), the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
The consortium supported 35 complementary case studies prepared by more than 100 researchers in more than 20 shrimp farming countries. These cases have been developed through consultation with numerous stakeholders throughout Asia, Africa and the Americas. Cases range from specific interventions within single operations to thematic reviews of key issues in shrimp aquaculture. The cases have been presented and discussed at more than 150 meetings and workshops worldwide. The goal of the cases is to document and analyse experience around the world in order to better understand what works, what doesn't and why.
The Consortium Program is based on the recommendations of the FAO Bangkok Technical Consultation on Policies for Sustainable Shrimp Culture , the World Bank review on Shrimp Farming and the Environment, and an April 1999 meeting on shrimp management practices hosted by NACA and WWF in Bangkok, Thailand.
There are six objectives to the Consortium Program:
1. Generate a better understanding of key issues involved in sustainable shrimp aquaculture.
2. Encourage a debate and discussion around these issues that leads to consensus among stakeholders regarding key issues.
3. Identify better management strategies for sustainable shrimp Aquaculture.
4. Evaluate the cost for adoption of such strategies as well as other potential barriers to their adoption.
5. Create a framework to review and evaluate successes and failures in shrimp aquaculture which can inform policy debate on management strategies for sustainable shrimp aquaculture.
6. Identify future development activities and assistance required for the implementation of improved management strategies that would support the development of a more sustainable shrimp aquaculture industry.
NACA publishes technical papers and manuals for a wide variety of farming systems and related environmental and social issues. Many of these provide guidance on better management practices with a view to improving crop outcomes and on-farm resource utilisation efficiency. By using inputs such as feed and power more efficiently, farmers can simultaneously improve their profitability and environmental performance.
This case study documents the success and lessons learnt from local co-management approaches involving farmers associations and local government in Thailand. The case study also shows the linkages and relationships of institutions operating at different levels of administration from farm to national levels and their effect on management. The case study provides an analysis of institutional supports and mechanisms needed for successful shrimp farming management via case studies.
The code development work was undertaken by the NARA in collaboration with the NAQDA, MFNWP, PEA, Shrimp Farmers and Exporters Associations, Shrimp Breeders Association, feed suppliers and manufacturers. This was developed mainly conducting consultations with different stakeholders of the industry and discussed at a forum with the representation of all stakeholders to reach consensus. The code includes technical specifications for the siting, design, construction and operation of shrimp hatcheries and farms.
The present case studies concentrated on three sites, Kandaleru in Andhra Pradesh, Dhigirpar in West Bengal and Brahmagiri in Orissa. The three sites are markedly differentbut have a common feature that all three mainly are concerned with small farmers groupings. Earlier shrimp farming failures owing to the overexploitation of the ecosystem, by overstocking and consequent high inputs, resulting in degradation of the environment, diseases and eventual collapse, have alerted all shrimp farm groups to be wary.
This case study review shrimp aquaculture development in Ecuador. The prevailing farming systems and practices are described. Most farms are extensive or semi-intensive and the industry is shifting to hatchery-reared PL rather than wild due to unpredictability in wild PL supply and disease outbreaks. A survey of water quality intake and outfall from farms is reported on with suggestions for farm design to reduce nutrient load in outfall is discussed. Health issues and mangrove degredation are discussed.
This article describes the international Consortium Programme on Shrimp Farming and the Environment, which was formed based on the recommendations of the World Bank review on shrimp aquaculture and the environment (1998), a 1999 NACA/WWF meeting in Bangkok, Thailand on shrimp management practices, and an FAO Bangkok technical consultation on policies for sustainable shrimp aquaculture (12/1997). The article was prepared for publication in InterCoast Issue #39, Cross Portfolio Learning for Enhancing Integrated Coastal Management.