Disease library https://enaca.org/rss/?id=700 A collection of technical publications relating to aquatic animal disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment. info@enaca.org info@enaca.org Copyright all rights reserved Wenzhou virus 8 (WZV8) diagnosis by unique inclusions in shrimp hepatopancreatic E-cells and a molecular detection method https://enaca.org/?id=1213&title=wenzhou-virus-8-%28wzv8%29-diagnosis-by-unique-inclusions-in-shrimp-hepatopancreatic-e-cells-and-a-molecular-detection-method

To assist shrimp pathologists worldwide we are providing here photomicrographs of unique basophilic inclusions that are produced by Wenzhou shrimp virus 8 (WZV8),  discovered in 2015 by Li et. al. We designed PCR primers and in situ hybridization probes for detection of WZV8. Subsequent ISH assays with shrimp RT-PCR positive for WZV8 samples indicate unique inclusions described herein as linked to WZV8 in H&E stained tissues. Going back over our previous histological reports and archived slides, we have found the unique WZV8 inclusions in E-cells of normal shrimp samples from several shrimp farming countries in Austral-Asia since at least 2008, and more recently in samples of P. vannamei from the Americas. We urge shrimp pathologists to review their records and specimens for the presence of WZV8 E-cell inclusions described herein to provide data on the global prevalence and impact of WZV8-like infections.

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Mon, 06 Jun 2022 03:59:30 +0000 https://enaca.org/?id=1213
Invasive disease linked to raw freshwater fish: Group B Streptococcus https://enaca.org/?id=1157&title=invasive-disease-linked-to-raw-freshwater-fish%3A-group-b-streptococcus

In 2015, a bacterium called Streptococcus agalactiae, also referred to as Group B Streptococcus (GBS), caused a foodborne disease outbreak involving at least 146 people in Singapore, associated with the consumption of raw freshwater fish. The specific strain responsible for the outbreak was later identified as sequence type 283 (ST283). Invasive GBS ST283 disease is also found in other countries in and around Southeast Asia. FAO has published a fact sheet and a risk profile for GBS ST283, which are available for free download. These documents provide guidance on risk reduction, and practical recommendations for food safety competent authorities.

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Mon, 28 Jun 2021 11:29:12 +0000 https://enaca.org/?id=1157
Viral covert mortality disease (VCMD): Disease card https://enaca.org/?id=1108&title=viral-covert-mortality-disease-card

This disease advisory describes the history, known host range, clinical signs and PCR detection methods for viral covert mortality disease (VCMD). Crustaceans currently known to be susceptible to VCMD include Penaeus vannamei, P. chinensis, P. japonicus, P. monodon, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Procambarus clarkii, Exopalaemon carinicauda, Ocypode cordimanus, Diogenes edwardsii, Corophium sinense, Parathemisto gaudichaud and Tubuca arcuate. Fish species including Mugilogobius abei, Carassius auratus, and Paralichthys olivaceus may also be susceptible to the virus.

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Mon, 25 May 2020 05:46:51 +0000 https://enaca.org/?id=1108
Infection with decapod iridescent virus 1 (DIV1): Disease card https://enaca.org/?id=1104&title=infection-with-decapod-iridescent-virus-1-%28div1%29-disease-card

Infection with DIV1 is an emerging disease in farmed Cherax quadricarinatus and Penaeus vannamei suffering a high mortality. This disease card provides information on signs of disease at pond and animal level (levels I - III diagnoses), the disease agent, known host range and distribution in the Asia-Pacific region, molecular diagnostic methods and provides key expert contact points.

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Thu, 07 May 2020 03:41:03 +0000 https://enaca.org/?id=1104
Urgent warning: Positive PCR detection results for infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) and decapod iridescent virus 1 (DIV1) in captured Penaeus monodon from the Indian Ocean https://enaca.org/?id=1093&title=urgent-warning-pcr-positive-imnv-and-div1-in-wild-penaeus-monodon-from-indian-ocean

From a survey of wild, adult Penaeus monodon of potential broodstock size from the Indian Ocean in April 2018, we obtained positive nested RT-PCR test results for infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) and positive nested PCR test results for DIV1. As a confirmatory step, a second round of nested PCR tests was carried out using new, in-house primers designed from regions of the respective viral genomes distant from the target regions used in the first round of tests. These results suggested the possibility that the grossly normal, PCR-positive captured P. monodon specimens might be infected with the respective viruses at the carrier level. If so, they might serve as potential vehicles for introduction of IMNV and/or DIV1 into crustacean culture systems, especially if they were used in hatcheries for production of PL for distribution to shrimp farmers without proper precautions in place.

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Tue, 25 Feb 2020 09:12:35 +0000 https://enaca.org/?id=1093
Urgent announcement on usefulness of the lymphoid organ (LO) as an additional prime target for diagnosis of decapod iridescent virus 1 (DIV1) in diseased P. vannamei https://enaca.org/?id=1092&title=urgent-announcement-on-usefulness-of-lymphoid-organ-for-diagnosis-of-decapod-iridescent-virus-1

We carried out laboratory injection challenges that employed extracts prepared from shrimp naturally-infected with decapod iridovirus 1 (DIV1). We found that diseased shrimp from the injection trials showed pathognomonic lesions for DIV1 in the hematopoietic tissue that matched those reported for DIV1 in P. vannamei from China (Qiu et al. 2017. Scientific Reports. 7). In addition, we also found distinctive lesions in the lymphoid organ that could be used as an additional indicator in confirming diagnosis of DIV1 disease. Also, the lesions from shrimp challenged with the 10x dilution were more severe than those from 100x dilution, and for some shrimp in the 100x dilution, the lesions were very clear in the LO but absent in the HPT. Altogether, the results suggested that histology of the HPT and LO could be used together to help in the diagnosis of DIV1 in conjunction with RT-PCR, amplicon sequencing and in situ hybridization (ISH) analysis. This is particularly important in confirming the presence of virulent isolates of DIV1 in new geographical locations.

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Thu, 20 Feb 2020 12:33:03 +0000 https://enaca.org/?id=1092
Fact sheet on Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei, a microsporidian parasite of shrimp https://enaca.org/?id=1064&title=fact-sheet-on-enterocytozoon-hepatopenaei-a-microsporidian-parasite-of-shrimp

EHP or Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei is a fungal microsporidian parasite that infects the hepatopancreas (hp) of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and whiteleg shrimp (P. vannamei) in Thailand and results in slow growth and, in chronic infections, mortalities. EHP is also known from Brunei, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Venezuela and Vietnam. This fact sheet provides information on the EHP life cycle, signs of infection, diagnosis and management in both hatcheries and growout, as well technical contacts for further information.

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Tue, 26 Nov 2019 08:02:05 +0000 https://enaca.org/?id=1064
WHO: Stop using antibiotics in healthy animals to prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance https://enaca.org/?id=932&title=who-stop-using-antibiotics-in-healthy-animals-to-prevent-the-spread-of-antibiotic-resistance

The World Health Organization (WHO) is recommending that farmers and the food industry stop using antibiotics routinely to promote growth and prevent disease in healthy animals. The new WHO recommendations aim to help preserve the effectiveness of antibiotics that are important for human medicine by reducing their unnecessary use in animals. In some countries, approximately 80% of total consumption of medically important antibiotics is in the animal sector, largely for growth promotion in healthy animals.

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Mon, 13 Nov 2017 03:37:10 +0000 https://enaca.org/?id=932
Tilapia lake virus (TiLV): Literature review https://enaca.org/?id=914&title=tilapia-lake-virus-tilv-literature-review

Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is an emerging infectious agent that has recently been identified on three continents. While the link between TiLV and disease outbreaks in Israel and Thailand are well documented, further investigations are being undertaken to determine the significance of TiLV in the other countries. This report summarises the available scientific information on TiLV, including clinical signs, diagnostics and epidemiology. Infection with TiLV in tilapia populations may result in socio economic losses and impacts on food security.

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Thu, 13 Jul 2017 07:25:39 +0000 https://enaca.org/?id=914
Fact sheet: Tilapia lake virus (TiLV): What to know and do? https://enaca.org/?id=871&title=tilapia-lake-virus-tilv-fact-sheet

Tilapia lake virus is a newly emerging virus that is associated with significant mortalities in farmed tilapia. This fact sheet describes the threat to industry, clinical signs, diagnosis, risk factors, prevention and control options and actions that must be taken to minimise the impact of this disease on the global tilapia aquaculture industry. All countries with a tilapia industry must be vigilant and act quickly to investigate cases of mortalities in farms.

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Fri, 26 May 2017 13:59:35 +0000 https://enaca.org/?id=871