Nutrition and feeding
1 January 2000 | 5911 views
Information relating to nutrition and feeding in aquaculture.
A collection of subject tags relating to technical matters.
In this collection
Over the years, there have been two growing sustainability concerns with shrimp supply chain, namely human trafficking and environmental impacts. Solving these two issues can sometime result in conflicting agendas. This summary outlines CPF’s approach and experience in dealing with the two issues. The most difficult challenge in our experience is in building trust and understanding between the stakeholders, including governments and regulators, fisherfolk, commercial fishermen, suppliers and buyers. However, we feel that CPF is now a pioneer in our programs.
The Department of Fisheries is responsible for aquaculture sustainability, including food safety, animal health and welfare, environmental integrity, social and community welfare and regulation of fishing activities across the whole aquaculture supply chain. The Feed Quality Control and Development Division is responsible for registration and certification of feed formulas and monitoring of feed quality. In addition to input controls, end products are also subject to inspection and monitoring, certification and traceability systems.
China is the world's largest producer of aquaculture feeds. With the development of aquaculture, the feed industry has inevitably faced some challenges in promoting update of commercial feeds, pollution, use of trash fish, fish meal and fish oil issues, provision of accurate nutrition and feeding, antibiotic residues, food safety, and so on. In order to balance economic and environmental issues the Chinese Government released its 13th Five-year Plan last year. Trends and policy changes relevant to aquaculture are discussed.
Decisions on feeding often diverge from scientifically reasonable optima, resulting in excessive nutrient input, low feeding efficiency, self-pollution, high production cost and negative environmental impacts. Innovations in feeding technologies and farming practices to improve feed utilisation efficiency are crucially important for sustainability of aquaculture. In this presentation the author tries to present some innovative feeding manipulations at farm level, examine some farming systems and practices that favour higher ecological efficiency, and share some thoughts on innovations at farm level.
Concerns about the health and safety of consumers are the driving force for the enforcement of traceability systems for aquaculture products. DOF's strategy to improve food safety related to shrimp production is a “Farm-to-Table” approach. This has been implemented through the development of a Code of Conduct for the marine shrimp industry, establishment of Good Aquaculture Practices for hygienic shrimp production, and documentation requirements for movement of chemical agents and purchase of aquatic animals.
Reducing the dependency of aquaculture on fishmeal is key for sustainable development. Fish meal and fish oil ingredients are not nutritionally required for farmed fish to grow as essential nutrients can be obtained from other sources. Alternative ingredients have been widely used in different countries but are characterised to be inferior in protein content, with unbalanced amino acid profiles and the presence of anti-nutritional factors. Combining alternative ingredients to get the same balance is possible but requires research.
Studies on fishmeal substitution have been conducted on many aquaculture species and publications indicate that some can be grown on fishmeal-free feeds with amino acid supplements. Quantities of fishmeal and fish oil in feed formulations have been substantially reduced and it appears that inclusion levels can be further reduced without sacrificing growth performance and utilisation of nutrients. The potential to utilise alternatives to fishmeal and fish oil in aquaculture diets is reviewed and issues and gaps identified.
In this analysis the maximum and minimal amounts of feed required to produce finfish and shrimp in the region has been estimated. Globally a great deal of effort and time have been spent on issues related to fish meal and fish oil and aquafeeds. Ongoing practices thought to result in inefficient use of feed resources are highlighted and improvements shown. Information on feed usage in aquaculture in a few nations in the region are discussed and emerging issues highlighted.
It is estimated that around 1,061,173. tonnes of commercial aquaculture feeds were consumed on 2016. The aquaculture feed milling industry in the Philippines is presently over capacity, based on the above-estimated feed requirement. The current primary law on animal feeds, which also covers aquaculture feeds, is under legislative review. Animal feeds ingredients standards are defined under administrative orders. Quality standards for finished aquaculture feeds are specified under the Philippine National Standards on Aquaculture Feeds (PNS/BAFPS 84: 2010).
This presentation gives an overview of aquaculture feed production and related issues in Vietnam.