The Genetics and Biodiversity Programme supports member states to improve scientific knowledge of aquatic genetic resources and to guide strategic planning in their management. The programme addresses both the conservation aspects of genetic resources and their responsible usage in aquaculture to minimise impacts on biodiversity and wild strains and to assist members to meet their obligations under international treaties.
The programme promotes international linkages between member states, capacity building, research programs to develop improved strains of finfish and shellfish, genetic characterisation of existing strains, adoption of new genetic tools and technologies and consortia regional programmes to address common issues, species and strains of value from conservation and/or aquaculture perspectives.
Key activities of the programme include:
Building capacity in aquatic genetic resource management and application of new molecular technologies, tools and strategies.
Characterising aquatic genetic resources to discover species, stocks and valuable genomic resources.
Facilitating national and regional programs for domestication, genetic improvement and conservation.
Applying conservation aquaculture models to support diversification, fishery enhancement and in-situ conservation of indigenous fish species.
Facilitating responsible exchange of germplasm, safe propagation and access-benefit sharing.
This regional review study is an effort to promote improved inland fisheries management under the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. It covers ten Asian countries with significant inland capture fisheries, namely Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam. The papers were presented and discussed at a regional workshop held from 8-11 February 2010 in Pattaya, Thailand. Audio recordings of the presentations are also available for download.
Aquaculture is today considered the only viable option for meeting the increasing future demand for fish and seafood products. There are concerns that unconstrained sectoral expansion and intensification, coupled with its ecological and social impacts, globalisation and fluctuation of markets and resources, climate change may have undesirable impacts on the resilience of social-ecological systems. Aquaculture makes demands on, but also can provide a range of ecosystem services.
Aquaculture is likely to benefit greatly from the application of appropriate genetic and reproduction biotechnologies to increase food production, but the application of established genetic improvement methods in aquaculture is much less than in agriculture. The world’s wealth of aquatic biodiversity at the genetic, species and ecosystem levels provides great potential for the aquaculture sector to enhance its contribution to food security and meet future challenges in feeding a growing human population.
The main objective of this review is to understand the status of aquaculture-fisheries interactions associated with the biological, technological, social, economic, environmental and other aspects of aquaculture development. It will also examine how the interactions are addressed under the EAA. It cover aspects of scoping, prioritising, management tools and plans within the context of the elements of ecosystem resilience, social and economic issues and the integration of aquaculture with other sectors.
The Phuket Consensus is a declaration on aquaculture development endorsed by participants of the Global Conference on Aquaculture 2010, held in Phuket, Thailand, 22-25 September. The consensus builds on the Bangkok Declaration, which was formulated at the International Conference on Aquaculture in the Third Millennium, held in Bangkok, 20-25 February 2000. The consensus and declaration provide strategic guidance on sustainable development of aquaculture considering social, environmental, technical and economic issues.
Various measures for resource enhancement, conservation and management have been tried in Bangladesh in order to prevent the decline of fisheries resources. The needs of Bangladesh’s poor fisher community to eat what they catch and lack of a legal legislative framework means this situation can only worsen. Hope is offered by new conservation initiatives including habitat restoration, enhancement of depleting fish stocks, transferral of fishing rights and establishment of fish sanctuaries at strategic points.
India produces 4.6 million tonnes of fish annually from its inland water bodies, of which 1 million tonnes originates from enhancement and capture fisheries of open waters. Reservoirs of all categories together produce 94,000 tonnes of fish against a potential of nearly 1 million tonnes. Ownership of inland water bodies vests with the government and the fishing rights of reservoirs and beels are given to individuals, groups and communities according to norms that vary across the states.
Fisheries resources conservation development in Indonesia is based on the protection of endangered and vulnerable freshwater species and maintaining biodiversity integrity, and has been developed with community participation. In order to increase the population and diversification of fish species in inland waters stock enhancement has been carried out since the Dutch occupation when more than 17 species were stocked in inland waters in Indonesia.
Early attempts of fisheries enhancement in Sri Lankan freshwaters were aimed at establishing commercial fisheries. A fisheries enhancement strategy was introduced to village reservoirs of the country in 1980s on a trial basis. Presently, inland fisheries enhancement strategies in Sri Lanka are practiced in seasonal reservoirs and minor perennial reservoirs. The annual CBF production from these reservoirs is about 6 600 tonnes, accounting for about 17 percent of the inland fisheries production.
Relative efficacies of lobsters Panulirus ornatus and P. homarus cultured using pellet feeds and trash fish, Vietnam. Tilapia in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Marketing low-value cultured fish in Bangladesh: An evaluation of value chain. Current practices of rice field eel Monopterus albus culture in Vietnam. Self-help group makes fisherwomen self-relian: A story of success. Small indigenous freshwater fish species of India: Significance, conservation and utilisation.