Environment and sustainability

Global population is forecast to reach around 9 billion by 2050. To feed the world, global agricultural output must increase by around 60% from present levels. This must be achieved against a background of increasing competition for natural resources such as water, feed ingredients and farming sites.

Maintaining environmental integrity while massively increasing food production will require farming systems to reduce their unit production environmental footprint. Many farming practices that are regarded as sustainable today will not be acceptable when scaled up. Sustainable intensification of aquaculture means doing more with less. The Sustainable Farming Systems Programme aims to help aquaculture become a more efficient user of natural resources, both in terms of farm productivity and environmental efficiency.

The programme develops better management practices for major aquaculture farming systems, and promotes aquaculture as a secondary or additional use of water resources. The programme focusses on practical interventions that can be directly achieved by small-scale farmers in a developing country context.

Key activities

Key activities of the programme are:

  • Development of better management practices for key aquaculture production systems.
  • Organising small-scale farmers into associations to facilitate cluster-based approaches to extension.
  • Development of culture-based fisheries as a secondary use of water bodies.
  • Development of strategic policy frameworks to guide governments and development agencies in promoting sustainable intensification of aquaculture.

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Subject tags

A collection of subject tags relating to technical matters.

In this collection

Aquaculture Development Beyond 2000: The Bangkok Declaration and Strategy

The main output of the International Conference on Aquaculture in the Third Millennium. The Declaration summarises the key impediments and opportunities in aquaculture development that are likely to arise over the next 20 years and provides strategic policy guidance for sustainable aquaculture development. The Declaration was adopted by conference participants in a plenary session.

Aquaculture Asia Magazine, October-December 2004

In this issue:

Captive breeding of vulnerable Indian carp Cirrhinus reba for conservation. Conservation of the Asiatic catfish Clarias batrachus through artificial propagation. A perspective on breeding and genetics of walking catfish in Thailand. Decline of wastewater-fed aquaculture in Hanoi. Artificial propagation of indigenous Tor species in Malaysia. Aquaculture of spotted babylon Babylonia areolata. First successful hatchery production of Napoleon wrasse Cheilinus undulatus. Trade and market trends in the live reef fish trade.

Aquaculture Asia Magazine, July-September 2004

In this issue:

Genetic considerations in fisheries and aquaculture with regards to biodiversity. Rice-fish culture for food and environmental security. Land-based aquaculture of spotted babylon Babylonia areolata in Thailand: Hatchery-based seedling operation. Shrimp health question and answer. Women in coastal aquaculture. Insights into live marine food fish markets in Asia. Farming practices, market chains and prices of marine finfish in Malaysia, Indonesia and Hong Kong.

Chemical and biological amendments used in shrimp farming (abstract)

This article compares the use of chemical and biological amendments in shrimp farming in Asia and the Americas. The information comes mainly from the author’s experience in Thailand and Ecuador, as well as from the literature. The amendments are discussed according to three major categories: (1) water and soil quality management products, (2) biocides, and (3) feed additives. Certain agents, while necessary to successful shrimp farming, should be used only when needed and in a safe and responsible manner. 

Improving coastal livelihoods through sustainable aquaculture practices: Full report

Wild-harvest fisheries for live reef fish are largely over-exploited or unsustainable. Sustainable aquaculture – such as that of groupers – is one option for meeting increasing demand for reef fish as well as potentially maintaining livelihoods of coastal communities. This report draws upon secondary literature, media sources and four diverse case studies from at-risk reef fisheries, to frame a strategy for encouraging sustainable aquaculture as an alternative to destructive fishing practices. It was commissioned by the APEC Secretariat.

Mud crab aquaculture in Australia and Southeast Asia

To review mud crab aquaculture in Australia and Southeast Asia, ACIAR funded a scoping study, followed by a workshop to review the study and discuss status and problems in different regions of Australia and Southeast Asia. The primary conclusion from the scoping study, verified by workshop discussion, was that the substantial crab farming operations which exist throughout Southeast Asia are still mainly based on wild caught crablets.

Shrimp Farming and the Environment: Can Shrimp Farming be Undertaken Sustainably?

This report is intended primarily as a discussion paper, to serve as the basis for informed dialogue and policy development to encourage more detailed guidelines following further study and consultation. It seeks, in particular, to answer three commonly posed questions: Is sustainable shrimp farming possible? Can poor coastal communities benefit from it? And, if so, what role can agencies like the World Bank play to ensure that basic minimal requirements to achieve this are met?

Coastal shrimp aquaculture: Searching for better management practices (abstract)

This case study was carried out in the North and North Central of Vietnam. The study was based on discussions and structured interviews with farmers, extension officers and other stakeholders. The objectives of the study were to describe the current coastal aquaculture practises, the impact on the livelihood of the coastal inhabitants and on the environment, to discuss the current situation in relation to the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and identify issues where BMPs should be introduced.

A case study on institutional aspects of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand

This case study documents the success and lessons learnt from local co-management approaches involving farmers associations and local government in Thailand. The case study also shows the linkages and relationships of institutions operating at different levels of administration from farm to national levels and their effect on management. The case study provides an analysis of institutional supports and mechanisms needed for successful shrimp farming management via case studies.

Code of good management practices for shrimp aquaculture in Sri Lanka (abstract)

The code development work was undertaken by the NARA in collaboration with the NAQDA, MFNWP, PEA, Shrimp Farmers and Exporters Associations, Shrimp Breeders Association, feed suppliers and manufacturers. This was developed mainly conducting consultations with different stakeholders of the industry and discussed at a forum with the representation of all stakeholders to reach consensus. The code includes technical specifications for the siting, design, construction and operation of shrimp hatcheries and farms.