Nutrition and feeding

Information relating to nutrition and feeding in aquaculture.

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Subject tags

A collection of subject tags relating to technical matters.

In this collection

Innovation in aquaculture farming and feeding practices for reduced feed costs and environmental impacts at farm level

Decisions on feeding often diverge from scientifically reasonable optima, resulting in excessive nutrient input, low feeding efficiency, self-pollution, high production cost and negative environmental impacts. Innovations in feeding technologies and farming practices to improve feed utilisation efficiency are crucially important for sustainability of aquaculture. In this presentation the author tries to present some innovative feeding manipulations at farm level, examine some farming systems and practices that favour higher ecological efficiency, and share some thoughts on innovations at farm level.

Traceability of aquaculture products in relation to feed and feed ingredients

Concerns about the health and safety of consumers are the driving force for the enforcement of traceability systems for aquaculture products. DOF's strategy to improve food safety related to shrimp production is a “Farm-to-Table” approach. This has been implemented through the development of a Code of Conduct for the marine shrimp industry, establishment of Good Aquaculture Practices for hygienic shrimp production, and documentation requirements for movement of chemical agents and purchase of aquatic animals.

Promotion of cost-effective aquaculture feed made of locally available feed ingredients

Reducing the dependency of aquaculture on fishmeal is key for sustainable development. Fish meal and fish oil ingredients are not nutritionally required for farmed fish to grow as essential nutrients can be obtained from other sources. Alternative ingredients have been widely used in different countries but are characterised to be inferior in protein content, with unbalanced amino acid profiles and the presence of anti-nutritional factors. Combining alternative ingredients to get the same balance is possible but requires research.

Development and use of alternatives to fishmeal and other high cost feed ingredients in aquaculture

Studies on fishmeal substitution have been conducted on many aquaculture species and publications indicate that some can be grown on fishmeal-free feeds with amino acid supplements. Quantities of fishmeal and fish oil in feed formulations have been substantially reduced and it appears that inclusion levels can be further reduced without sacrificing growth performance and utilisation of nutrients. The potential to utilise alternatives to fishmeal and fish oil in aquaculture diets is reviewed and issues and gaps identified.

Overview of aquaculture feed production and use in the Asia-Pacific region

In this analysis the maximum and minimal amounts of feed required to produce finfish and shrimp in the region has been estimated. Globally a great deal of effort and time have been spent on issues related to fish meal and fish oil and aquafeeds. Ongoing practices thought to result in inefficient use of feed resources are highlighted and improvements shown. Information on feed usage in aquaculture in a few nations in the region are discussed and emerging issues highlighted.

Status of aquaculture feed and feed ingredient production and utilisation in Philippines

It is estimated that around 1,061,173. tonnes of commercial aquaculture feeds were consumed on 2016. The aquaculture feed milling industry in the Philippines is presently  over capacity, based on the above-estimated feed requirement. The current primary law on animal feeds, which also covers aquaculture feeds, is under legislative review. Animal feeds ingredients standards are defined under administrative orders. Quality standards for finished aquaculture feeds are specified under the Philippine National Standards on Aquaculture Feeds (PNS/BAFPS 84: 2010).

Status of aquaculture feed and feed ingredient production and utilisation in Vietnam

This presentation gives an overview of aquaculture feed production and related issues in Vietnam.

Status of aquaculture feed and feed ingredient production and utilisation in Thailand

Approximately 90% of aquaculture produce in Thailand are fed with a complete commercial feed. The Department of Fisheries is responsible for the licensing and registration of feed to be sold for commercial purposes. High quality fishmeal is a priority for aquaculture feed production especially for shrimp and marine fish and this has significantly affected feed cost. Most agricultural by-products are already utilised for purposes such as livestock, pet foods, fertilisers and biofuels, so competition for alternative ingredients is high.

Status of aquaculture feed and feed ingredient production and utilisation in Korea

Olive flounder and Korean rockfish make up over 60% out of total finfish production. However, marine fish culture heavily relies on farm-made feed. Although the Korean government has made various attempts to promote sustainable aquaculture, most farmers still prefer to use raw fish-based frozen pellets to compounded feed. To secure the sustainable growth of domestic aquaculture and feed production, the Korean government needs to press on with policy enforcement andresearch and development to provide low-priced compounded feeds.

Status of aquaculture feed and feed ingredient production and utilisation in Pakistan

Aquaculture has become an important sector in terms of its potential for increasing domestic supply of quality protein in Pakistan. Promising prospects exist for further growth in carp production due to high profitability and because there are about 2 million hectares of freshwater bodies (lakes, reservoirs and rivers) suitable for aquaculture. Fish farming in Pakistan is operating on an extensive or limited semi-intensive level and use of artificial feeds is limited, only having been introduced as a practice recently.