Environment and sustainability

Global population is forecast to reach around 9 billion by 2050. To feed the world, global agricultural output must increase by around 60% from present levels. This must be achieved against a background of increasing competition for natural resources such as water, feed ingredients and farming sites.

Maintaining environmental integrity while massively increasing food production will require farming systems to reduce their unit production environmental footprint. Many farming practices that are regarded as sustainable today will not be acceptable when scaled up. Sustainable intensification of aquaculture means doing more with less. The Sustainable Farming Systems Programme aims to help aquaculture become a more efficient user of natural resources, both in terms of farm productivity and environmental efficiency.

The programme develops better management practices for major aquaculture farming systems, and promotes aquaculture as a secondary or additional use of water resources. The programme focusses on practical interventions that can be directly achieved by small-scale farmers in a developing country context.

Key activities

Key activities of the programme are:

  • Development of better management practices for key aquaculture production systems.
  • Organising small-scale farmers into associations to facilitate cluster-based approaches to extension.
  • Development of culture-based fisheries as a secondary use of water bodies.
  • Development of strategic policy frameworks to guide governments and development agencies in promoting sustainable intensification of aquaculture.

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In this collection

Case studies in India on the role of small farmer groups and associations in sustainable shrimp aquaculture management (abstract)

The present case studies concentrated on three sites, Kandaleru in Andhra Pradesh, Dhigirpar in West Bengal and Brahmagiri in Orissa. The three sites are markedly differentbut have a common feature that all three mainly are concerned with small farmers groupings. Earlier shrimp farming failures owing to the overexploitation of the ecosystem, by overstocking and consequent high inputs, resulting in degradation of the environment, diseases and eventual collapse, have alerted all shrimp farm groups to be wary.

Case studies of Ecuadorian shrimp farming (abstract)

This case study review shrimp aquaculture development in Ecuador. The prevailing farming systems and practices are described. Most farms are extensive or semi-intensive and the industry is shifting to hatchery-reared PL rather than wild due to unpredictability in wild PL supply and disease outbreaks. A survey of water quality intake and outfall from farms is reported on with suggestions for farm design to reduce nutrient load in outfall is discussed. Health issues and mangrove degredation are discussed. 

Mixed shrimp farming-mangrove forestry models in the Mekong Delta: Termination report

The goal of this project was to optimise the economic yield from mixed shrimp aquaculture-mangrove forestry farming systems in Ca Mau Province, Vietnam, in a sustainable manner. Specific objectives were to investigate factors controlling the yields of shrimp and wood from shrimp farming-mangrove systems, experiment with shrimp pond and mangrove forest management to evaluate different culture options, identify improved practices and assist government to transfer the results of the project to the wider coastal farming community.

Shrimp Farming and the Environment (article prepared for InterCoast #39)

This article describes the international Consortium Programme on Shrimp Farming and the Environment, which was formed based on the recommendations of the World Bank review on shrimp aquaculture and the environment (1998), a 1999 NACA/WWF meeting in Bangkok, Thailand on shrimp management practices, and an FAO Bangkok technical consultation on policies for sustainable shrimp aquaculture (12/1997). The article was prepared for publication in InterCoast Issue #39, Cross Portfolio Learning for Enhancing Integrated Coastal Management.

Shrimp Farming and the Environment

This collection of publications originates from the International Consortium Program on Shrimp Farming and the Environment, which was implemented by the World Bank, the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA), the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The consortium supported 35 complementary case studies prepared by more than 100 researchers in more than 20 shrimp farming countries.

Economics and Management of Shrimp and Carp Farming in Asia

The sixteen papers in this volume were largely based on the data from a survey of more than 5,000 shrimp and close to 6,000 carp farms in sixteen countries and territories in the Asia-Pacific region. They provide an economic and technical efficiency of production analysis for Asian shrimp and carp farming systems. This survey was conducted under the ADB/NACA regional study and workshop on aquaculture sustainability and the environment (RETA 5534).

Aquaculture Asia Magazine, October-December 2003

In this issue:

Freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nobilii for rural nutrition. Snapshots of a socially responsible farm in Sri Lanka. Introduction of rainbow trout in Nepal. Tilapia seed production in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Seaweed mariculture - scope and potential in India. Growth enhancement of carp and prawn through dietary suppliementation with salt. Fertilisation and water quality management in small ponds. The "Gher Revolution". Exercising responsibilities to tackle aquatic animal disease. Immunostimulants in aquaculture.

Aquaculture Asia Magazine, July-September 2003

In this issue:

Ornamental fish farming in India. Tilapia for Indian aquaculture? Peri-urban food production in southeast Asia. Socio-economic consequences of shrimp farming in Andhra Pradesh. Breeding techniques for golden arowana Scleropages formosus. Captive breeding of peacock eel Macrognathus aculeatus. Substrate-based aquaculture systems. Extension in shrimp health management - experiences from India. Treatment of disease in freshwater shrimps and crabs in China. Larval rearing techniques for humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis.

Aquaculture Asia Magazine, April-June 2003

In this issue:

Peri-urban aquaculture in Kolkata. Diffusion and adoption of shrimp farming technologies. Aquaculture education in India. Information system on fish germplasm resources in China. Freshwater crustacean aquaculture in China. The role of macronutrients. Innovations by Bengal farmers. Scientific guidelines for freshwater prawn farmers in India. Status of mariculture in Indonesia. Use of probiotics in larval rearing. Problems in shrimp culture during the wet season.

Aquaculture Asia Magazine, April-June 2002

In this issue:

Prawn farm energy audits. Freshwater fish farming and poverty alleviation in Bangladesh. Artificial propagation for conservation of endangered species. Sewerage-fed aquaculture systems of Kolkata. Rice-fish farming in India. The use of lime, gypsum, alum and potassium permanganate in water quality management. Fish gene technology research in China. Low-salinity shrimp farms. Seed production of Clarius batrachus. Supplying good-quality seed for sustainable aquaculture and more.