The Genetics and Biodiversity Programme supports member states to improve scientific knowledge of aquatic genetic resources and to guide strategic planning in their management. The programme addresses both the conservation aspects of genetic resources and their responsible usage in aquaculture to minimise impacts on biodiversity and wild strains and to assist members to meet their obligations under international treaties.
The programme promotes international linkages between member states, capacity building, research programs to develop improved strains of finfish and shellfish, genetic characterisation of existing strains, adoption of new genetic tools and technologies and consortia regional programmes to address common issues, species and strains of value from conservation and/or aquaculture perspectives.
Key activities of the programme include:
Building capacity in aquatic genetic resource management and application of new molecular technologies, tools and strategies.
Characterising aquatic genetic resources to discover species, stocks and valuable genomic resources.
Facilitating national and regional programs for domestication, genetic improvement and conservation.
Applying conservation aquaculture models to support diversification, fishery enhancement and in-situ conservation of indigenous fish species.
Facilitating responsible exchange of germplasm, safe propagation and access-benefit sharing.
Domestication in livestock industries is the process in which animal populations change in response to the artificial environments of farming production systems. Significant and widespread economic gains have been achieved through genetic improvements made through domestication and selective breeding of commercially farmed shrimp species, particularly Litopenaeus vannamei. Different policies on the translocation of shrimp genetic resources have influenced the approaches to shrimp domestication in different countries. The present paper examines the different approaches.
Tropical shrimp aquaculture is facing a disease crisis that may be propelled by an interaction between management practices that cause inbreeding, and the amplification by inbreeding of susceptibility to disease and other stresses. Broodstock accumulate inbreeding and lose genetic diversity when they experience bottlenecks or are chronically too small. The genetic lock is a practice that leads to inbreeding at farm level. Inbreeding may be amplifying the severity of diseases, including the major current threats.
Further training provided to aquaculturists in Fiji. Spatial planning for sustainable coastal shrimp production. Availability of grouper (Serranidae) fingerlings and seed in the coral reef of Son Tra Peninsula, central Viet Nam. Small-scale carp seed production through portable FRP hatchery at Khanguri, Odisha. Regional consultation on culture-based fisheries developments in Asia. Gender Assessment Synthesis Workshop. Broodstock management in aquaculture. Urgent appeal to control spread of the shrimp microsporidian parasite Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP).
Regional consultation on culture-based fisheries developments in Asia. Gender Assessment Synthesis Workshop. NACA participation in the 5th Global Symposium on Gender in Aquaculture and Fisheries, Lucknow, India. Broodstock Management in Aquaculture: Long term effort required for regional capacity building. Urgent appeal to control spread of the shrimp microsporidian parasite Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP).
Asia produces nearly 90% of world aquaculture output. However, growth of the industry is increasingly constrained by various factors, including poor broodstock quality and genetic deterioration of domesticated stock. This has arisen in part from a general lack of planning, knowledge and skills in broodstock management. Capacity building across the region is urgently required for hatchery operators at different scales through information exchange, experience sharing and training.
A regional consultation was held to discuss culture-based fisheries development in Asia from 21 to 23 October 2014 in Siem Reap, Cambodia. The consultation was funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research as part of the project Culture-based fisheries development in Lao PDR and Cambodia. The consultation provided the opportunity to discuss the outcomes of a series successful projects that have been implemented over the past decade in the Asian region.
Labour issues in the fishing and aquaculture industries. Commercial tilapia farming at take-off point in Fiji. Tank based captive breeding and seed production of the pearlspot (Etroplus suratensis). Cage culture of pearlspot in Kerala, India. Culture-based fisheries exchange visit from Lao PDR to Cambodia. National Fish Day, Cambodia. WAS Adelaide: Special Session on Regional Cooperation for Improved Biosecurity. Inbreeding and disease in tropical shrimp aquaculture: A reappraisal and caution.
Culture-based fisheries exchange visit from Lao to Cambodia. National Fish Day, Cambodia. WAS Adelaide: Special Session on Regional Cooperation for Improved Biosecurity. Inbreeding and disease in tropical shrimp aquaculture: a reappraisal and caution. Shrimp EMS/AHPND Special Session at DAA9. 2nd International Symposium on Aquaculture and Fisheries Education. Report on Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture for Food Security and Nutrition.
The disease crisis facing shrimp aquaculture may be propelled, in part, by an interaction between management practices that cause inbreeding, and the amplification by inbreeding of susceptibility to disease and environmental stresses. The study describes and numerically simulates gene flow from Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei hatcheries that employ a ‘Breeder Lock’ to discourage use of their PL as breeders, through ‘copy hatcheries’ that breed the locked PL, to inbred shrimp in farm ponds.
Shrimp aquaculture in tropical regions is facing a disease-induced catastrophe of lost production. There is reason to believe that current (poor) broodstock management practices may induce genetic erosion that increases susceptibility to disease and vulnerability to epizootics. The basic tenet for this consultation is that an important aggravating factor in the disease crisis is an agro-economic system that locks shrimp breeders, hatcheries and farmers into behaviour that induces high levels of inbreeding.