Recognising that challenges for better management of shrimp aquaculture around the world are complex, and that improved practices often result from identifying and analysing lessons learned and exchanging such information, a Consortium Program entitled "Shrimp Farming and the Environment" has been developed. The partners are the World Bank, the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA), the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

The consortium supported 35 complementary case studies prepared by more than 100 researchers in more than 20 shrimp farming countries. These cases have been developed through consultation with numerous stakeholders throughout Asia, Africa and the Americas. Cases range from specific interventions within single operations to thematic reviews of key issues in shrimp aquaculture. The cases have been presented and discussed at more than 150 meetings and workshops worldwide. The goal of the cases is to document and analyse experience around the world in order to better understand what works, what doesn't and why.

The Consortium Program is based on the recommendations of the FAO Bangkok Technical Consultation on Policies for Sustainable Shrimp Culture , the World Bank review on Shrimp Farming and the Environment, and an April 1999 meeting on shrimp management practices hosted by NACA and WWF in Bangkok, Thailand.

There are six objectives to the Consortium Program:

1. Generate a better understanding of key issues involved in sustainable shrimp aquaculture.

2. Encourage a debate and discussion around these issues that leads to consensus among stakeholders regarding key issues.

3. Identify better management strategies for sustainable shrimp Aquaculture.

4. Evaluate the cost for adoption of such strategies as well as other potential barriers to their adoption.

5. Create a framework to review and evaluate successes and failures in shrimp aquaculture which can inform policy debate on management strategies for sustainable shrimp aquaculture.

6. Identify future development activities and assistance required for the implementation of improved management strategies that would support the development of a more sustainable shrimp aquaculture industry.

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Related

Technical publications

NACA publishes technical papers and manuals for a wide variety of farming systems and related environmental and social issues. Many of these provide guidance on better management practices with a view to improving crop outcomes and on-farm resource utilisation efficiency. By using inputs such as feed and power more efficiently, farmers can simultaneously improve their profitability and environmental performance.

In this collection

Shrimp Farming and the Environment: A Consortium Program to Analyse and Share Experiences on the Better Management of Shrimp Aquaculture in Coastal Areas

This report provides details of the activities and outcomes of work conducted under the World Bank, NACA, WWF and FAO consortium program on Shrimp Farming and the Environment. The report synthesises the major findings of the consortium program from 1999-2002. It includes the outcome from a stakeholder workshop that discussed the program findings, hosted by the World Bank in Washington DC, in March 2002.

Cultivo de Camarón y Medio Ambiente: Un programa en consorcio "Para analizar y compartir experiencias a fin de mejorar el manejo de la acuicultura de camarón en las áreas costeras"

Este reporte da detalles de las actividades y resultados del trabajo conducido bajo el Programa en Consorcio del Banco Mundial, NACA, WWF y FAO sobre “Cultivo de Camarón y el Medio Ambiente”. Este reporte sintetiza los resultados más importantes del programa del consorcio desde 1999 hasta marzo de 2002. Incluye los resultados de los talleres de usuarios que discutieron los resultados del programa, auspiciados por el Banco Mundial en Washington, DC, en marzo de 2002. 

Evaluation of Belize Aquaculture Ltd: A superintensive shrimp aquaculture systesm

Belize Aquaculture, Ltd., has developed a superintensive shrimp aquaculture system operating in lined ponds with heavy mechanical aeration and water recirculation. The pilot study has been in progress for two years. Shrimp production has ranged from less than 8,000 kg/ha to more than 20,000 kg/ha per crop. Because the Belize Aquaculture, Ltd., production system appears to address a number of the environmental impacts of traditional shrimp aquaculture systems, a case study of this unique system was conducted.

Shrimp aquaculture, the people and the environment in coastal Mexico

This report reviews the state of shrimp aquaculture developent in Mexico, including its impact on employment, complexities surrounding coastal property rights, investment and health issues. Regulation and monitoring of the industry are still in their infancy, but SEMARNAP is putting in place a system that may be able to ensure that aquaculture will be sustainable. More effective involvement of the NGO community in the aquaculture sector may also help to monitor and ensure compliance with environmental regulations.

Economics of better management practices for semi-intensive shrimp farms in Honduras and shrimp cooperatives in Nicaragua

Several stakeholder groups have formulated and recommended the implementation of better management practices (BMPs)aimed at improving production efficiency and/or ameliorating impacts of shrimp farming on the environment. In this study, an economic optimisation model with an environmental component was used to evaluate the effects of five specific BMPs on the profitability, optimal selection of management strategies, and net quantities of nutrients discharged by semi-intensive shrimp farms in Honduras and small-scale operations in Honduras and Nicaragua.

Silvofishery farming systems in Ca Mau Province, Vietnam

This case study provides (1) a description of the farming systems and management practices for mixed shrimp aquaculture-mangrove farming systems in the Mekong delta of Vietnam and (2) the findings from a detailed socio-economic study of these systems. The findings provide insight into the social and economic status of farmers involved in mixed aquaculture-mangrove farming, and the constraints associated with the adoption of management recommendations, with special consideration of the problems faced by poor farmers.

An evaluation of rice-shrimp farming systems in the Mekong Delta

The integration of dry season shrimp farming into rice fields has raised incomes over several consecutive seasons for many farmers in the region. However, our study has revealed some key constraints that need to be addressed in order improve environmental and economic sustainability. The results of our study show that the traditional practice of recruiting native shrimp species through water exchange is not sustainable because of the attendant build-up of sedimentation on the farm.

Shrimp farming in Rushan County, China (abstract)

This case study is based on a farm survey of 41 farms out of the total 340 farms in the Rushan County. The results presented in this paper highlight two main problems. The first issue revolves around labor cost statistics. The value of labor cost during the culture period forms a larger than proportionate ratio of total variable cost. The second problem lies in the high fixed cost incurred by rehabilitated farms.

Shrimp aquaculture management in Bangladesh (abstract)

This case study is based on review of existing publications/reports and stakeholder consultations. It is divided into three main sections, namely: 1) Background review on shrimp aquaculture in Bangladesh. 2) Results from a case study of farm management practices, hatcheries and wild shrimp fry collection and 3) Results from a case study on the social aspects of shrimp aquaculture, based on detailed local level studies in the Khulna region.

The environmental management of shrimp farming in Australia

In Australia, strict Commonwealth and state environmental regulations have constrained development of shrimp farming. A high level of resources, relative to the size and value of the industry, has been devoted to collaborative research on the environmental management of shrimp farming in Australia. The research findings are being used to provide a scientific basis for discharge license requirements and are incorporated into an advanced geographic information and decision support system in order to improve site selection and aquaculture planning.