This report is intended primarily as a discussion paper, to serve as the basis for informed dialogue and policy development to encourage more detailed guidelines following further study and consultation. It seeks, in particular, to answer three commonly posed questions: Is sustainable shrimp farming possible? Can poor coastal communities benefit from it? And, if so, what role can agencies like the World Bank play to ensure that basic minimal requirements to achieve this are met?

The Asia Regional Advisory Group on Aquatic Animal Health meets annually to discuss regional health issues including emerging disease threats. This report includes a review of regional disease status circa 2003, global and regional disease reporting arrangements, global issues and standards, progress in implementation of the the Regional Technical Guidelines on Health management for the Responsible Movement of Live Aquatic Animals, identification and designation of regional aquatic animal health resources and regional and international cooperation.

This case study was carried out in the North and North Central of Vietnam. The study was based on discussions and structured interviews with farmers, extension officers and other stakeholders. The objectives of the study were to describe the current coastal aquaculture practises, the impact on the livelihood of the coastal inhabitants and on the environment, to discuss the current situation in relation to the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and identify issues where BMPs should be introduced.

This case study documents the success and lessons learnt from local co-management approaches involving farmers associations and local government in Thailand. The case study also shows the linkages and relationships of institutions operating at different levels of administration from farm to national levels and their effect on management. The case study provides an analysis of institutional supports and mechanisms needed for successful shrimp farming management via case studies.

The code development work was undertaken by the NARA in collaboration with the NAQDA, MFNWP, PEA, Shrimp Farmers and Exporters Associations, Shrimp Breeders Association, feed suppliers and manufacturers. This was developed mainly conducting consultations with different stakeholders of the industry and discussed at a forum with the representation of all stakeholders to reach consensus. The code includes technical specifications for the siting, design, construction and operation of shrimp hatcheries and farms.

The present case studies concentrated on three sites, Kandaleru in Andhra Pradesh, Dhigirpar in West Bengal and Brahmagiri in Orissa. The three sites are markedly differentbut have a common feature that all three mainly are concerned with small farmers groupings. Earlier shrimp farming failures owing to the overexploitation of the ecosystem, by overstocking and consequent high inputs, resulting in degradation of the environment, diseases and eventual collapse, have alerted all shrimp farm groups to be wary.

This case study review shrimp aquaculture development in Ecuador. The prevailing farming systems and practices are described. Most farms are extensive or semi-intensive and the industry is shifting to hatchery-reared PL rather than wild due to unpredictability in wild PL supply and disease outbreaks. A survey of water quality intake and outfall from farms is reported on with suggestions for farm design to reduce nutrient load in outfall is discussed. Health issues and mangrove degredation are discussed. 

The goal of this project was to optimise the economic yield from mixed shrimp aquaculture-mangrove forestry farming systems in Ca Mau Province, Vietnam, in a sustainable manner. Specific objectives were to investigate factors controlling the yields of shrimp and wood from shrimp farming-mangrove systems, experiment with shrimp pond and mangrove forest management to evaluate different culture options, identify improved practices and assist government to transfer the results of the project to the wider coastal farming community.

This document provides the report of the joint APEC/FAO/NACA/SEMARNAP workshop on “Trans-boundary aquatic animal pathogen transfer and the development of harmonized standards on aquaculture health management,” held at Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, 2000. The workshop reviewed the impacts of trans-boundary pathogens, management strategies and harmonisation of of aquatic animal health management measures. Participants adopted the “Puerto Vallarta Plan of Action” incorporating recommendations for to control the spread of serious aquatic animal pathogens.

This article describes the international Consortium Programme on Shrimp Farming and the Environment, which was formed based on the recommendations of the World Bank review on shrimp aquaculture and the environment (1998), a 1999 NACA/WWF meeting in Bangkok, Thailand on shrimp management practices, and an FAO Bangkok technical consultation on policies for sustainable shrimp aquaculture (12/1997). The article was prepared for publication in InterCoast Issue #39, Cross Portfolio Learning for Enhancing Integrated Coastal Management.